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Axle
An axle bears the wheels, rollers and other rotating components. Different types are fixed and the rotary axles. An axle does not transmit power. That’s the drive shaft’s job!


Battery
Stores the electrical energy of the SolarBiker.


Butterfly nut
A wing nut has two "wings" for easy tightening of the nut on a thread. Such nuts are tightened and loosened without tools by hand (using thumb and pointer finger).


Capacitor
A capacitor is an electrical component for storing an electrical charge. A capacitor consists of two conductive, non-connected metal plates or foils. As insulator, either an air gap or a so-called dielectric (an electrically non-conductive material like plastic) is used. The capacity of a capacitor is a measure of the electric charge that it can store.


CE Mark
CE tags verify product safety in countries of the European Union (EU). By affixing the CE tag the manufacturer confirms that the product complies with current European guidelines.


Chain
A chain is a series of band-like coherent and interlocking movable chain links that can be out of metal. Chains are used for transmitting power, as with a bicycle chain.


Counter Module
Due to a mechanical trigger created signals are electronically counted and displayed. The display can be reset back to zero by using the reset button. The counter module is a module on SolarBiker that counts the pedal revolutions.


Display module
Modules are compact circuit assemblies with different components. The display module is specially developed for the SolarBiker to display electrical data. The left side displays the load status of the capacitors in the power storage module. The right side displays the amount of energy in the capacitors


Electronic Energy
Electrical energy is the form of energy that based on electric charge. Electrical charge is the "electrical substance" that flows through the wires. Electric energy is a basic phenomenon of nature in the form of electric charge and the electric current. Electrical energy is based on the attraction and repulsion of electrically charged particles. Electrical energy is also called electricity.

Electric motor
An electric motor is an engine which transforms with the help of magnetic fields electrical energy into rotary motion to drive machinery, vehicle, and the SolarBiker. The fixed part of the electric motor is the stator, the rotating part is called rotor.


Electric power production
Electric power production is commonly known as "making" of electricity. "Making" is a misleading term. It is actually an energy conversion from one form of energy into electrical energy. For example, solar energy is converted directly into electrical energy by the solar cells. Energy can only be converted from one form into another

Energy
Energy is the ability of a physical system to do work. Energy can not be created or destroyed (conservation of energy)! Energy occurs in various forms, such as as mechanical energy, thermal energy, magnetic energy, electrical energy, chemical energy and radiation energy. The various forms of energy can be transformed into each other.

Energy Storage
This is the storage of energy for later use. Storing in a desired form of energy is complicated. However, it can be converted and then stored in another form of energy. For example, electrical energy can be stored as potential energy of water in the upper basin of a hydroelectric power plant or in the chemical energy of hydrogen.

Gearmotor
It combines the fast turning electric motor and the transmission into one unit. Thus, this reduces the rotation and increases torque.


Gears combination
The combination of the two gears on the SolarBiker with either the same or different number of teeth. Through the combination of different gears, different speeds are achieved.


Global radiation
Global radiation is the total amount of solar radiation that perpendicularly enters into the earth surface. It consists of radiation coming directly from the sun and of diffuse radiation that is scattered by clouds, water and dust before entering the surface. The annual sum of global radiation in Germany is between 900 and 1200 kWh per m2. This radiation rate changes depending on the time of the day and year. On a cloudless summer day in Germany, radiation values of approximately 1000 Watts/m² are measure. During cloudy weather it drops below 50 Watts/m².


Light source
A light source is an object which emits the light, such as an incandescent lamp or the sun. There is a distinction between natural and artificial, and direct and indirect light sources. A natural source of light is the sun. An artificial light source such is a light bulb. The sun is a direct source, while the moon is an indirect light source. The moon only reflects the sun’s light.


Module
Modules are assemblies of individual components into a larger component, such as the legs of the SolarBiker which is composed of upper and lower leg. Due to the use of modules, the development and manufacture of products is more straightforward. If errors occur, the faulty module can be replaced.


Renewable Energy
Renewable energies have by human standards an infinite energy sources that either renew themselves or are not depleted by our use. Such sources of renewable energies are solar, geothermal, "Planet Energy" (due to the gravitational force between earth and moon), wind, water power, and bio-energy plants (photosynthesis).


Reset button
The reset button is a button that resets the display to its initial value. The reset button on the display of a SolarBiker resets the count of pedal revolutions to zero.


Series circuit
A series circuit is an electrical circuit where multiple components / modules are connected in an continuous series with a single path. A series of solar cells in a solar module produces a voltage increase. In addition to be connected in series, circuits can also be connected in parallel circuit where multiple paths are possible. The voltage in parallel circuits has the same values.


SolarBiker
The SolarBiker is a model bicycle developed by solar village Kettmannshausen eV that requires self assembly and is an experimental tool for fun, research-based learning for children and adolescents. It provides fundamental knowledge on mechanics and electrical engineering.


Solar cell
A solar module consists out multiple solar cells combined in one unit. It generates electrical energy. The housing of the unit provides protection:
- For the fragile solar cells against mechanical forces,
- From the weather
- From contact between electrically conductive parts,
Plus, it allows:
- Easy handling and mounting
- correct electrical setup.


Solar Panel
Component with several solar cells in a housing


Transmission
The transmission is a device that can change, couple and convert movements. Gears transmit and convert speeds, directions, torques and forces


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